Sunday, March 26, 2017

GIFTS, POWERS, LIVES, WORLDS, SECRETS (Fourth Mansions Chapter 3)

Here's a basic outline of the chapter, focusing on shifts in setting:

0. Epigraph - Don't drop it!
1. "A section of town that he had always been a little frightened of."
    History/Biography, Psychic Geography, Larkers
2. "The house of the address was a tipsy four-storied frame building"
    Interloper and Interrogators
3. "The return way is open even when the senders are unaware."
    Brain-weave interlude
    Bertigrew Bagley
5. "through dark streets...into the night door of his own newspaper building."

0. Chapter 3 opens with a Michael Fountain quote from something called the Second Trefoil Lectures. Michael Fountain is still a mysterious character at this point and nothing in Chapter 3 will give us any more information about him.

This quote lays out one of the major ideas of the novel, that "our group soul" is ready to advance: "We come to the verge, to the mansions of the fourth height, in a moving moment of dizzy expectation and extreme danger, up under a new Heaven with a new Earth in our hands."

Later, Bagley will reflect that "There've been a hundred points where mankind was frustrated from real clarification and grace."

One of the questions of the novel is whether or not this point will be another point of frustration.

1. After the breeziness of all of the dialogue in Chapter 2, we get a hard stop. Suddenly, the present action stops and we are given an extended peek into Freddy Foley's childhood. This childhood is concretely expressed through physical aspects of environment. We are given a brief tour of one part of Freddy's psychic geography and a look at a series of items and people that populate that geography.

If one of the themes of the book is Freddy growing up and finding his face, then this little bit of Chapter 3 provides a picture of Freddy as child. He was/is a fearful boy in a very rough part of town. There is hell to avoid. There is the gift of life, all unearned and unasked for. There are railroad tracks connecting this part of town to the possibility of elsewhere.

And there are the Larkers.

2a. Freddy follows his note to a house for a meeting. Before the meeting, he comes across Leo Joe Larker.

Leo Joe Larker is a fascinating character and I think important. I can't quite figure him out. He does return later in the novel in an important role. I'm not quite sure what to do with his shifting racial identity and shifting appearance. I have suspicions, but I'm not sure that I can put it all together. Maybe at the end of this re-read, I'll have it all figured out. Maybe.

Some info:

"Leo Joe.....who was the oldest of the Larkers and four years older than Freddy....said, moveover, that they could work magic, and that he himself had raised a man from the dead."

Leo Joe says:
"I'm an interloper."
"I'm putting in first claim on you."
"I have an override on all threats to you."

I think that we have to take Leo Joe at his word. He is an interloper. He interlopes. Lafferty uses the word 'interloper' again later in the chapter in a pejorative sense, but here I think he means it as a positive description.

There is a hint later in the chapter that Leo Joe is possibly a part of the extended complex network of the Congregation of Patricks, which consists of "Exarchs, Crolls, Autocrats, Larkers, Aloysii, Patriarchs, and so on up to the Emperor himself."

(Here's an aside not about Leo Joe. It's said by Bagley that the office of emperor has been vacant for more than a thousand years. Any guesses on who was the last emperor?)

2b. "He pulled up a chair and sat down at the table with the three men."

This section is pretty straightforward. Some thugs try to intimidate Freddy and threaten to replace him. The section accomplishes the purpose of establishing that there is a real threat to Freddy's life and that there are real people actively covering up some business of people being replaced by other people.

3. As Freddy leaves this meeting, he gets brain signals from Miguel, a character that we've yet only seen in these veiled brain-weave moments. This section does give us a clear description of the openness of the brain-weave, that Freddy is receiving information that he wasn't meant to be receiving.

"The authors of the brain-weave believe that they have transmitted somehow through polarized one-way glass; but it is two-way. The return way is open even when the senders are unaware, and all those who have been touched by the weave are themselves somehow in touch, even when the weavers or Harvesters are asleep."

There's also a bit here about Letitia Bauer and deformed monkey babies, a "rambling-in-waste-places delirium."

4. Bertigrew Bagley.

One gets the sense that Lafferty loved Bagley. There's certainly a lot of Lafferty in Bagley.

On Overlark and the "old crippling persuasion" and the cost of challenging it.
"Once you get your hands onto the thing you will learn a little of its nature. You'll feel the rot of it, the leprosy that will not be stamped out. And you'll see that its face is always respectability. But if you follow up to the end you will not be respectable yourself."

"I do not see everything in black or white. I see most things in the four or five central colors or forces. In the middle, of course, is that malodorous worm whom we call common man. He is mud-colored. And around him are the four sorts of creatures who assail him while they claim to love him, but mine is the only sort that actually loves him."

"Foley, a supreme word of contempt is 'flatlander.' Somehow there is the belief that people in the Dark Ages believed that the world was flat. They didn't. But it is the contemptuous ones of today who have made a really flat world that is the sad answer to everything. What is wrong with the world and why is it not worth living in? It's flat, that's what."

It is in this section of the chapter that Bagley gives us a breakdown of the parties involved in the growing conflict.

"Of the four sorts of creatures that surround the Castle are the Pythons, the Toads, the Badgers, and the Unfledged Falcons."

"Some of it's from the beautiful things of a lady named Teresa Cepeda, born a little after Columbus died. He only discovered continents; she discovered the Castle itself."

Malodorous Worms - Freddy Foley, the commonality of mankind
"You are one of the malodorous worms, Foley, the commonality of mankind, the simplicity. Me, I'm a badger."

Pythons - Jim Bauer and the Harvesters
"the brain-weavers, the Harvesters, they belong to the pythons....pythons are prophetic."

Toads - Carmody Overlark and the other revenants.
"The revenants are the toads." "The returners really do have the jewel, and it may be the jewel of knowledge."

Badgers - Bertigrew Bagley and the Congregation of Patricks
"the badgers... Ours is the real; but even if I should tell you all about it you would regard us as a network of lodges or curious societies or comical conventions. Can you not see that it is your apparent government and world that is these things? Foley, there are alternate worlds going on all the time, depending only on the vision. There is a double reflection. I do not accept yours, and sure would not accept mine. But I say that mine is alive and that its more favorable time-track may still be selected." "Have you heard of Christendom still living?"

Unfledged Falcons - Miguel and "probably a hundred such movements starting right now"
"The unfledged falcon appears more reptilian than the reptiles. But sometimes it grows, it is fledged, it flies. At its best, to me, it is only mediocre: it was the Crusades; it was the Ottonian Empire (an interloper); it is the firm but doltish authority. At its worst it is the fascist thing." "A young man has been torched with this fever....His name comes to me as Miguel."

5. The chapter ends with a chase scene, Freddy running back into town and safety, avoiding the pursuit of men following him with presumed murderous intent.

"Freddy might be a simpleton but he was an agile simpleton. They did not have him that night."

"But somebody was after Freddy Foley and they weren't kidding."

Tuesday, March 14, 2017


Chapter 2 should come as a relief to anyone troubled by Chapter 1. There is plenty of exposition and much of the murkiness of Chapter 1's brain-weave clears up as affected characters converse with one another. Chapter 2 is a direct continuation of Chapter 1.

All the events of Chapter 2 occur "later that night."

 Here is the basic structure:
 1) Freddy and Biddy
-At the Scatterbrain Lounge
-At Michael Fountain's Apartment
-After Fountain's Apartment
2) Freddy and Selim -At the City Museum

Also, structurally, the most important thing to note is that this chapter is (almost) entirely a wall of dialogue. The plot is propelled through the conversations of the characters. It's a verbal feast and makes me yearn for a great radio play adaptation of the play produced by Jim Freund and Stefan Rudnicki. Then again, if the novel ever got adapted into a television show, I can see Episode 2 (adapting Chapter 2) accomplished in one virtuoso tracking shot, following "action" from bar to street to apartment to street to museum.

Conversation #1 - Freddy and Biddy at the bar transitioning to Freddy and Biddy on their way to Fountain's.
Conversation #2 - Freddy and Biddy speak with Michael Fountain.
Conversation #3 - Freddy and Biddy post-Fountain.
Conversation #4 - Freddy and Selim at the City Museum.

So, what do we learn from these conversations?

-Freddy "had the notion that perhaps Carmody Overlark... was the same man as Khar-ibn-Mod, a Mameluke diplomat who served an Egyptian Caliph some [500] years back."
-Carmody Overlark "..changed his name...From Charles to Carmody, and just about two years ago." He has a reputation, possibly "inserted back in time a little," as "an intellectual, a legend, an amateur of all the arts, and a patron." His face is "probably Moravian." He "suffers from asthma--these last two years."

-Michael Fountain's nephew was most definitely killed by the brain weave. Micheal Fountain himself slipped the brain weave "almost completely." He does not know who they did find and change, "But it was somebody whose mind has touched mine, who was in a certain accord with me, a young man's mind, and I do not know whose." [Attentive readers will remember the name Miguel Fuentes from last chapter though the relationship is still a mystery.]

-Goal of the Harvesters?
Fountain: "You will attempt mutation on yourselves, or perhaps it will be mutilation. It will not work."
Biddy: "It will work! We've seen the castle on top of the hill. We'll climb that hill, we'll be the first people ever to climb it. We'll be the first super-people, the first people able to grasp the vision. And we'll lead the rest of humanity up to it." .... "Despise us, loathe us! We'll show you. We'll redeem you all. We'll make the breakthrough to intellectualized, celestialized, chthonized, socialized, paranaturalized, cosmosized, one-other-word-that-I-forgot." (yes, Lafferty is having fun here!)
Freddy: "my own girl has turned into one of the snakes."

Finally, Freddy pretty much lays out every bit of the plot thus far to his friend Selim:
Selim: "Is it the live things or the dead things that are bothering you tonight, Freddy?"
Freddy: "It's those things that won't make up their mind which they are. See, there are these brain folks that Biddy runs around with, three Shes out of Haggard and three Borgia types out of Baron Corvo. They mix up this brain stuff and put it out in psychic jolts. It knocked me to my knees the first time they used it on me. Tonight they tried it on Michael Fountain. He slipped them, but it killed his nephew and bit into someone else. Now they're raising up something that would be better dead, and they've put me onto a man who ought to be dead."
And a little later, Freddy: "You get plugged into their brain-weave and you stay plugged in. They plug into someone else, and you're connected too. And sometimes now I'm connected with [Fuentes] when they're not."

(If you're still confused by the novel, read that a few times. It should clear everything up. Once you've read it a few times, have fun looking up Shes out of Haggard and Borgia types out of Baron Corvo.)

Finally, Freddy learns a little more at the museum. "The life-mask is that of a civil servant who served under Akhnaton, the heretic king of Egypt.... lived around 1350 B.C., or around 900 B.C., if you follow the timetable of Velikovsky." The name of the mask? - "Kir-ha-Mod.... transliterated as Kar-Ha-Mod."
Freddy: "It's the same face three times, it's the same name three times."

The chapter ends with Freddy finding an address in his pocket. Freddy resolves to go to the address while hearing some Mexican-Spanish talk ("cooking up something big") in his head.


Some few other things....

-Scatterbrain Lounge is a great name for a bar.
-Hugh Hamtree gets my favorite laugh out loud lines in the novel with his helpful suggestion that the guy might have gotten froze in a block of ice. I love the idea of a bartender listening to Freddy and Biddy's crazy conversation and attempting to make a helpful suggestion.
-With all of the dialogue, the few spots of non-dialogue commentary stick out all the more. For example, see this post's title.

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

YOU ARE ALREADY SNAKE-BIT (Fourth Mansions Chapter 1)

How does one begin to tackle Fourth Mansions? My best advice is to read through it as fast as you can, then return and read through it slowly a few more times. Or, if you're following our weekly schedule and don't want to read ahead, I suggest hanging around in a chapter, dwelling there, getting a feel for it, re-reading the chapter at least once or twice during the week.

What do we get in Chapter 1?

Here's the basic structure:

1) Prologue
2) Intro to Freddy
3) Intro to the Harvesters
      -Harvesters Gathered
      -Brain-weave in action


The chapter starts with a quote from Teresa of Avila's Interior Castle, setting up the action:
"For there are all these obstacles for us to meet and there is also the danger of serpents."
So, in the rest of the novel, let's at least be expecting some obstacles and serpents.

Following this quote is what I'm calling the Prologue, a marvelous bit of writing that instantly hooks the reader even as it disorients and disarms.

The style of this prologue, in its earthy urgency and in that it directly addresses the reader, is different than what follows. It also connects to and sets up what is to follow. In this prologue, we read of "entwined seven-tentacled lightning," "seven-colored writing in the darkness," and "seven murderous thunder-snakes striking in seven directions." Besides this multiplication of sevens, we get the continuation of the "danger of serpents" theme that Teresa has set us up for. We are "snake-bit" and we feel the "snake-death."

The word "seven" is repeated twelve more times in the relatively short space of Chapter 1, always connected to the Harvesters and to brain-weaving. ("It is a seven-bladed sword; it is no joke.")

Intro to Freddy

Ah, but before we are introduced to the Harvesters, we are introduced to Freddy Foley, "a young man who had very good eyes but simple brains."

We first encounter young Freddy arguing with his supervisor, Tankersly. The entire scene reads like a classic 30s screwball comedy script. I imagine William Powell playing a screen version of Freddy Foley.

In a tight exchange of dialogue, we learn that Foley is a newspaper reporter, that he has been chasing an unlikely story that Carmody Overlark, Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, is the same man as a Khar-ibn-Mod who lived 500 years ago, that Foley has been intimidated and injured chasing the story, and that there are also low-grade seismic disturbances happening locally. Written out like this, the plot seems serious, building toward adventure and confrontation, but again, on the page, it reads screwball.
"Ah, why don't you take off the rest of the day and get drunk, Foley?"
"I did that Monday on your advice. I'd still rather have followed up that case."
"Well, it was better than having you go off quarter-cocked on the Knoll story. That would really have gotten us laughed out of town. And this thing now, drop it! No more Carmody stuff. No more stuff of men who live for centuries or who live more than once. Try one more bender for my sake now, and I hope to see you tomorrow morning, red-eyed and trembling, with your, ah, sanity restored, and ready for work. Get out of here now."
"Yes sir," Freddy Foley said, and he got out.
It's worth noting that Foley is a young man. It's subtle, but there are many instances of this youth theme through the chapter. The head of the Harvesters is described as young-looking and another of their number is explicitly called young, while yet another is described as "nineteen years old and had been nineteen for quite a while." The target of the brain-weave described later in the chapter is identified repeatedly (ten times) only as a "young man," and the Harvesters engaged in the brain-weave are described as "young people." All of this youth language may or may not be set against the possibly 500-year-old Carmody Overlark. It is there, I think, to direct the reader toward the open possibilities of youth, that all of these characters are as yet immature and must grow into who they will be.
As all cats (and especially tigers) are loose in their skins, this Freddy Foley was loose in his face. There was room there for far more things than his winking innocence and his easy grin. There was room for multiplex character that Freddy hadn’t developed yet, for expressions he had never used. It was a face unplowed, though momentarily bloodied.

Intro to the Harvesters
"There were seven of the Harvesters. It takes at least seven to make up a brain-weaving, and this was their favorite game. They met in the evenings especially, and often in the daytimes, for they all had a sort of entanglement going about each other. Apart from each other they were powerful in their persons. Together they became critical mass."
The seven Harvesters meet at the mansion of James Bauer and are the source of the "low-grade seismic disturbances, earthquake jolts which were mental but which fooled instruments and men."

David Pringle and many others classify Fourth Mansions as a fantasy text, and maybe it is, but I feel pretty strongly that this brain-weave is a direct descendant of the multitude of esp/psionics stories that Campbell had championed decades earlier. (This type of sf story was not limited to Astounding. One of my favorites of this subgenre is Bester's The Demolished Man, which was serialized in Galaxy.) Fourth Mansions exists in the context of a very clearly defined and even popular science fictional set of ideas, regardless of whether or not we've since discarded those ideas as pseudo-science.

Here is the SFE entry on Psionics:

The Harvesters each get their own brief introduction before they come together in a demonstrated brain-weave. It is in these introductions that Lafferty links each character with a painting style. This close linking of character to a visual style was unpacked by Gregorio Montejo at last year's LaffCon

James Bauer - “This Jim Bauer was in oils, in the splotchy sort of oil-painting that Eakins did do well, that should have been sketchy in result, and wasn’t.”

Bedelia (Biddy) Bencher - “This Bedelia (Biddy) Bencher was a drawing in red chalk by Matisse. She was red-haired and lightly freckled and beautifully bony (the last her own description). She had a lustful mouth and innocent eyes, and was full of green passion. She was nineteen years old and had been nineteen for quite a while.”

Salzy (Ensalzamienta) Silverio - “This Salzy was a bit by Degas, yet he would never have guessed the twisted passion of this dark, gay, unsmiling young woman. “Not twisted,” Salzy once said of her own passion, “it is helical. That sounds better.”

Arouet Manion - “This Arouet Manion was a Reynolds piece. Having a Reynolds face, he appeared more profound than he was. But that maker touched many of his characters with his irony.”

Wing Manion - “Wing Manion reminded one of a fish done by Paul Klee: not in her actual appearance, of course, but in her style. Yet she was good-looking, and Klee never painted a good-looking fish in his life. Those Klee fishes, though, they have passion.”

Hondo Silverio - “This Hondo Silverio could have been by Ingres. ”

Letitia Bauer - “Letitia Bauer was the pale or moon-colored, slim woman whom Burne-Jones had painted several times: as Beggar Main, as Norse Goddess, variously.”

Beyond this linking to painters, Lafferty gives us at least one more descriptive hook which will recur with each character. Each character is distinguished from one another. Each character has their own motivations for participating in the brain-weave. Though all are involved in something dangerous, not all appear to be villainous.

Through the interactions of the group members, the connection of these seven to Freddy Foley is established. He is Biddy Bencher's boyfriend, and he has been chosen as a patsy, a fool used to probe at the powerful Carmody Overlark. And Carmody Overlark, it is revealed, is quite powerful himself, able to brain-weave on his own and able to resist the brain-weave game of these amateurs playing at power for the first time.

After all of the Harvesters are established, the chapter concludes with them attempting to gain psychic influence over a man named Michael Fountain, to pour "fire" into him and use him as Lord of the Harvest. The Harvesters, led by Bauer, intend to sift the entire world, with themselves set up as the lords of power behind the powers-that-be. Not all agree on the how or the why, but each feel the power and allow themselves to be caught up in it.
“The brain-weaving was something that the Harvesters themselves did not understand, though they had developed it deliberately. Now they gathered the power and the goal to themselves, and they projected it. They did not, any of them, understand it completely in their own persons, but they understood it more completely when the seven of them were linked together. Surely they would understand it in near totality when they had linked more and more strong persons to themselves. These seven were all projecting persons and they could feel their own effect welling through.”
This last section is perhaps the most difficult of the chapter. Lafferty skillfully juggles descriptions of the Harvesters in their physical realities with descriptions of the Harvesters in their pyschic realities as they probe at and attempt to control Michael Fountain. It is confusing for the characters and confusing for the reader that these Harvesters end up struggling psychically with a a "bewildered young man" who is perhaps inside of Michael Fountain but distinct from Michael Fountain. This young man is gradually revealed to be separate from Fountain, but somehow related to Fountain.
“The brain-weave was fabricating a new and uncontrollable personage in the name of Michael Fountain, but did he know it? He knew it in fright and agony, and he slipped away from it again and again. He had felt the death of one man caught in it accidentally; he felt the total penetration of another. But were not both of these himself in some way?
The brain-weave had entered, deeply and forever, into a mind under that of Michael Fountain, and yet it was a mind associated with his. Had the brain-weave made a new mind and a new man and named it Michael Fountain?”
When this new man is revealed as Miguel Fuentes at the very end of the chapter, the reader is left unsure of who this man is and what is relationship to Michael Fountain is. Despite this lack of clarity, there is no question about what kind of man this is. The young man has now become a main person in the world. This young man has become a germinating man. This young man has become a timeless man.

- - - - - - - - - -


Is Fourth Mansions science fiction or fantasy? Or something else?

Lafferty's novels have a reputation for being notoriously difficult to read. Is Chapter 1 difficult?